Anti Aristotle—The Division of Zero by Zero

Abstract

Today, the division of zero by zero (0/0) is a concept in philosophy, mathematics and physics without a definite solution. On this view, we are left with an inadequate and unsatisfactory situation that we are not allowed to divide zero by zero while the need to divide zero by zero (i.e. divide a tensor component which is equal to zero by another tensor component which is equal to zero) is great. A solution of the philosophically, logically, mathematically and physically far reaching problem of the division of zero by zero (0/0) is still not in sight. The aim of this contribution is to solve the problem of the division of zero by zero (0/0) while relying on Einstein’s theory of special relativity. In last consequence, Einstein’s theory of special relativity demands the division of zero by zero. Due to Einstein’s theory of special relativity, it is (0/0) = 1. As we will see, either we must accept the division of zero by zero as possible and defined, or we must abandon Einstein’s theory of special relativity as refuted.

Continued at Source—>

Source: Anti Aristotle—The Division of Zero by Zero

BEHOLD: THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF WORLD PROBLEMS & HUMAN POTENTIAL • Risk of Eco-Accidents

“The Great Work” = Enabled by Climate Emergency

Source: http://encyclopedia.uia.org/en/problem/132519

Risk of Eco-Accidents:

NATURE: Abrupt and widespread discontinuities exist in the fossil record of fauna and are considered evidence of widespread mass extinction of species. These low frequency events have been attributed to fluctuations in sea level, reversals of the geomagnetic fields (exposing the earth’s surface to lethal radiation), impacts of the earth by very large meteors (putting tons of dust into the atmosphere cutting off photosynthesis) and supernovae (causing catastrophic but temporary climate changes). There are also a range of potential man-made ecocatastrophes, such as triggering an earthquake with a an underground nuclear explosion. In addition, there are other more fantastic possibilities. The sun will expand into a red star engulfing Mercury and Venus and melting lead on the Earth. The moon can fall to earth, a comet, a swarm of meteorites or a black hole could collide with the earth. The earth will eventually loose its atmosphere. A life form might evolve destroying all of humankind.

This is the source material for the United Nations Agenda 2030 – the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The carrying out of the implementation of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals is the partnership formed between the United Nations and the World Economic Forum known as “The Great Reset”…

See where this Masonic aptitude takes us…

THE TIME IS NOW…BY: MUUNYAYO

My discontent and disgust at a system gone mad is what has involuntarily awoken a fire and desire for the restoration of wholesome justice to all people of the earth.

Our Neo-Liberal, cosmopolitan, debt-laden, multicultural, borderless, raceless, genderless, godless system of consumerist surveillance capitalism has destroyed the soul’s right to breathe.

And your right to breathe is on track to come from Klaus Schwab’s sustainable allotment – oxygen fed to you from a fucking eyedropper.

The time is now…have you had enough? I’ve had enough. Let me tell you what I see.

I have seen the seriousness of scholastic standards from Kindergarten thru PhD levels seep deep into the abyss of the Globohomogayplex multicultural hellscape, to boot, mathematics being deemed as racist – for human biodiversity has limited the intellectual wherewithal of certain outsiders.

Where has the moral imperative for a monolithic, homogeneous society to embrace outsiders as their own – furthermore adorning these outsiders as a priority?

I know where it comes from and it’s called the Tetragrammaton fiat-debt-death grip of legerdemain used as the stranglehold on decent, hardworking ordinary Americans.

The advancement of dishonest harmony in place of honest conflict, via the diversity and equality agenda.

The acceleration of globalization decimating the working class, with Americans livelihoods being flushed down the sewer at the behest of supranational corporate profits.

Globalization has consumed all political clout – as the mega behemoth business conglomerates have lobbying power to keep the career politicians fat and happy.

A politician is concerned with their reelection. A true statesman is desperately concerned for the future of their homeland.

These politicians have no moral compass, nor are they subject to term limits. Oh yeah. In case you didn’t know:

THEY FUCKING HATE YOU.

I see the new cold war on the horizon for – be it a hot war filled with bombings, air raids, boots on the ground, blood, suffering, mutilation and death – or a cold wat: with the hint of nuclear annihilation – all being used to keep the military industrial complex a going concern. Congress establishes the defense budget, publicly traded companies like Raytheon and Lockheed Martin are awarded GUARANTEED PAYMENTS due to the provisions of the legislation as on the only beneficiaries of this fucking disgusting system – war and rumours of war inject the needed momentum in the investment markets to artificially drive up the fair market value (the stock price) and can be capitalized upon for those that are in the know – it’s not an accident. And regardless, the guaranteed revenue streams less cost of goods less operating expenses leave healthy dividends when the net income available for distribution to shareholders after taxes is determined – and those accounts tested for being “reasonably stated” by so called independent outside CPA firms (I worked for a Big Four for five years and know the drill).

A legislative body that has been hijacked by lobbying arms of a foreign power. That foreign power is “our greatest ally” – though I ask – what has our greatest ally done for America lately?

WHAT HAS YOUR GREATEST ALLY DONE FOR YOU LATELY???

I witness policy being enacted by a Congress in lockstep when it comes to providing Israel with $4 billion dollars annually for their military, security and defense infrastructure. And yet, living in the Boston area, I see thousands of Americans left to rot; hungry, homeless, sick and suffering.

I see unacceptable, subsistent conditions of care being extended to our veterans, to the children dying in the cancer wards.

I see the genderfluid, former bearded man of Boko Haram, that came to America with the assistance of treasonous nonprofit organizations like HIAS, being put on a pedestal as “the new American dream”…the backbone of the “coalition of the ascendant.”

I see a privatized medical industry that has shareholders with little to gain from engaging in the business of health and wellness – for it is death, sickness and decay that generates the healthy quarterly dividends.

I see a stolen election. Democracy is fake anyways for if our vote counted, we would not be allowed to cast one.

I see the memory of those who conquered this land being castigated as the ones who stole it. Due to the irrevocable natural order of the universe it is the strong who survive.

I see degeneracy, debauchery and malfeasance baked into every last bit of entertainment subsumed by the masses. It has reached a point where dildo sanitization has taken the place of self defense techniques – being regularly practiced by the masses.

I see the largest plot in the Zionist war on humanity underway, which began with a virus concocted by my country’s NIH – using taxpayer funds to subsidize gain of function research on coronavirus potential, done in Wuhan China and ultimately the virus being released upon the world “accidentally on purpose.”

I see fuckwitted, feeble-minded, fuckfaces who were smart enough to steal source code, lawyer-up and win intellectual property rights to release their Overton Window operating systems and monopolize the Industry – like Bill Gates – still fickle-brained and fuckwitted to not know when he fucked little girls hanging with Jeffrey Epstein he was just another victim of blackmail accomplished by the Epstein/Maxwell Mossad-led espionage operation that gobbled up many of the rich and powerful.

So therefore Gates is the perfect fall man as having become the voice of moral authority on the state of [virus] union, as well as climate change hoaxes and other fake and gay malicious disinformation raining down upon the people of the earth like a bucket of African fecal matter. Every single day.

I see the guidance by our precious elected leaders on precautions against this bat-flu – the guidance changes every single hour for the last twenty-two months. Masks/no masks/social distancing/three masks/participating in the riots for Saint George Floyd is actually GOOD for slowing down the transmission of the bat-flu/vaccines/two shots of vaccines/booster shots – mix and match this is your world baby and I’m just living in it – you are the star – oh, pardon us, the vaccines don’t work but get them anyways for the growth of robust corporate profits of Pfizer, Johnson and Johnson, Ass-Fuck-Face-Zenica are thriving and well we need more transgendered black lives mattering. Therefore, I have seen the definition of a vaccine come under alteration – because the vaccines do not achieve immunity – rather, they fit a twisted byproduct to affix to the political ideology that the fat black ladies and queer cocoa shunters on television can shout about.

I see the big picture – that over ten years ago the United Nations changed the lawful definition of a “refugee” to that of a person more-so exhibiting the circumstances as a migrant. And I saw the United Nations make the Kalergi-styled determination that migration is a human right!!!

And I have seen the Club of Rome concocted “climate emergency” Boogeyman unleashed upon the world….in concurrence with the every single White person who believes in the Constitution having been relegated as the most dangerous threat – the Far-Right, domestic terrorist extremist, conspiracy theorist, anti-vax, pro-Second Amendment – people that make memes that give Jews epileptic seizures – the White people are the most dangerous component in this thing called Western Civilization – Greek philosophy, Roman statecraft, Germanic engineering…for it is the Aryan Ethos that had the competence and capability to collectivize so effectively….but now, in the era of post-truth, where Klaus Schwab is Yawweh and Jonathan Greenblatt is Wyatt Earp – get this – it is the very events of progress that forged Western Civilization that created the global warming, created the climate change “emergency” and Furthermore – caused the pollution to the “Third World” nations in the first place! And therefore – the people that lack the agency to remain in their own nations and develop their nations – they are now climate change emergency refugees!!!! And some of them chopped their cocks off and are LGBTQPIA++ so we better make some room! The Church of the Woke compels you!!!!

Fuck it all. Blow it all the fuck up. There are no weapons needed. Only something from the Third Position.

Objective Reality has been subverted, perverted and inverted onto it’s head. This is due to pathological altruism taking precedent over Tradition. The Natural Order of the universe is under attack, from all four compass points, the time is now.

NO MORE OF THIS.

NO MORE.

I HAVE SEEN ENOUGH.

YOU HAVE SEEN ENOUGH.

WE HAVE HAD ENOUGH.

THE TIME IS NOW.

THE TIME IS NOW.

YOUR POSTERITY IS IN DANGER.

YOUR ANCESTORS ARE WATCHING.

HISTORY IS COMING BACK.

Ordo Ab Chao: Techno-Libertarianism

Californian Ideology 

Gregory Bateson’s protégée Stewart Brand became one of the earliest “digerati” of the 1980s, having adopted Norbert Wiener’s idea that machines extended human potential. And it was Brand and his Whole Earth Catalog which managed to recruit the tech savvy among his fellow denizens of the 60s counterculture to interpret the rise of the personal computer and the Internet as tools of personal liberation from tyranny. Although these aspirations sound left-leaning, they were embedded in a libertarian strain that served to align the technology industry with neoliberal principles. Aligned with the pranksterism of Discordianism, and the teachings of Jesuit priest Teilhard de Chardin, the trend fueled the emerging hacker culture. The result is a disturbing political trend that swept Silicon Valley, which evolved into transhumanism and technolibertarianism.

Technolibertarianism, sometimes referred to as cyberlibertarianism, hailed the new “cybernetic frontier” that could be fortified against government intrusion through robust forms of encryption. The term Technolibertarianism was popularized in critical discourse by technology writer Paulina Borsook, author of Cyberselfish: A Critical Romp Through the Terribly Libertarian Culture of High Tech. It represents what English media theorists Richard Barbrook and Andy Cameron as “The Californian Ideology” in a 1995 essay. According to Fred Turner, sociologist Thomas Streeter of the University of Vermont, in From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism, notes that the Californian Ideology appeared as part of a pattern of Romantic individualism with Stewart Brand as a key influence. Turner describes their aspirations as follows:

“…they would tear down hierarchies, undermine the sorts of corporations and governments that had spawned them, and, in the hierarchies’ place, create a peer-to-peer, collaborative society, interlinked by invisible currents of energy and information.”

The development of the California Ideology was shaped by the presence of the Koch brothers in California, who had moved the CATO Institute from Wichita to San Francisco, alongside a handful of other Koch-funded libertarian organizations. In Menlo Park was Charles Koch’s flagship libertarian think-tank the Institute for Humane Studies, which he had taken control of in the 1960s. Reason magazine and the Reason Foundation, with David Koch as director, were headquartered in Santa Barbara. In 1979 the Libertarian Party, with funds from the Koch brothers, held its convention in Los Angeles, where the Koch-backed political party chose David Koch as its vice-presidential nominee for the 1980 race. SIL News reported that the earliest group of Libertarian Party activists consisted of 75 percent former Republicans, 36 percent Objectivists and 16 percent who embraced OTO member Robert Heinlein, 23 percent followers of Ludwig von Mises, and 17 percent anarchists.

During the 1990s, members of the entrepreneurial class of Silicon Valley combined the ideas of Marshall McLuhan with elements of radical individualism, libertarianism, and neoliberal economics, and used publications like Wired to promulgate their ideas. This ideology mixed New Left and New Right beliefs together based on their shared interest in anti-statism, the counterculture of the 1960s, and techno-utopianism. Wired was founded by Louis Rossetto, a “radical libertarian” also influenced by Ayn Rand, Marshall McLuhan and Teilhard de Chardin. Rossetto, was inspired the Koch brothers’ Reason magazine when he was a student at Columbia in the early 1970s. Rossetto and Stan Lehr, both young student radicals from Columbia University, associated with the Radical Libertarian Alliance journal the Abolitionist, wrote a cover story in January 1971 on the burgeoning libertarian movement for the New York Times Sunday magazine, with themselves photographed on the cover, called “The New Right Credo: Libertarianism.” “The movement is made!” Rothbard celebrated.

Former IONS director Howard Rheingold recounts stories about the WELL, an early virtual community, in the mid to late 1980s inspired by Brand’s Whole Earth Catalogue.

Formerly known as Wired News or HotWired, the strongest influence on the Wired magazine’s editorial outlook came from the techno-utopianism of co-founder Stewart Brand and his long-time associate Kevin Kelly. Stewart Brand had hired Kelly in 1983 to edit later editions of the Whole Earth Catalog, the Whole Earth Review and Signal. With Brand, Kelly helped found the WELL (Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link) in 1985, one of the oldest virtual communities in continuous operation. An early and very active member was Howard Rheingold, a former director of IONS who worked at Xerox PARC, and a founding executive editor of HotWired. Rheingold co-authored Higher Creativity: Liberating the Unconscious for Breakthrough Insight with Willis Harman. According to Rheingold’s book, the WELL’s Usenet feed was for years provided by Apple.

Adam Curtis connects the origins of the Californian Ideology to the Objectivist philosophy of Ayn Rand. Technolibertarianism is also known as extropianism, which was founded by Max More, who according to R.U. Sirius also coined the term transhumanism. According to Mark Dery in Escape Velocity: Cyberculture at the End of the Twentieth Century, “As theorized in Extropy, Extropian transhumanism is a marriage of Ayn Rand and Friedrich Nietzsche—specifically, Rand’s conviction that statism and collectivism are the roots of all evil and Nietzsche’s complementary concepts of the end of morality, the ‘will to power,’ and the Übermensch, or ‘overman’.” More’s libertarianism is founded on his Luciferianism, as articulated in an article he wrote, “In Praise of the Devil”: “Lucifer perseveres in trying to point out to us that we have no reason to accept altruism. It is only freedom from the false-virtue of altruism that we gain freedom from God and ‘the State.’”

Turn On, Boot Up, Jack In

The Californian Ideology, according to Barbrook and Cameron, “is a mix of cybernetics, free market economics, and counter-culture libertarianism and is promulgated by magazines such as Wired and Mondo 2000 and preached in the books of Stewart Brand, Kevin Kelly and others.” In the 1980s, Timothy Leary reemerged as a spokesperson of the “cyberdelic” counterculture, whose adherents called themselves “cyberpunks,” whose adherents were pioneers in the IT industry of Silicon Valley and the West Coast of the United States. In the 1980s and 1990s, many young people became interested in Leary’s Eight-Circuit Model of consciousness, because they felt that by reconciling spirituality with science and technology, it helped them to define the new techno-generation they were part of. In contrast to the hippies of the 1960s who were decidedly anti-science and anti-technology, the cyberpunks of the 1980s and 1990s enthusiastically embraced technology and the hacker ethic. As Leary proclaimed, rebranding his popular commandment, “PC is the LSD of the 1990s” and admonished bohemians to “turn on, boot up, jack in.”

In the 1960s, Leary himself had very much been against computers. However, Leary’s attitude towards computers completely changed. As early as 1973, Leary was predicting that some day the world would be linked through an “electronic nervous system” (the Internet) and that computers could be used to empower the individual. In the early 1980s, Leary came to believe that psychedelic drugs and computers actually have very much in common, and “are simply two ways in which individuals have learned to take the power back from the state.” Leary argued that both psychedelics and computers can help us to liberate ourselves from authority and “create our own realities.” In Chaos & Cyberculture, his last published work before his death, Leary also presents a theory on the evolution of countercultures from the 1950s to the 1990s, and defines the new counterculture called the “cyberpunks,” or “new breed.” Leary explained that in order to understand what the word “cyberpunk,” or “cyber-person” really means we have to go back to the Greek roots of the term “cybernetics.” Leary claimed that the parallels between the alchemists of the Middle Ages and the cyberpunk computer adepts are numerous:

Alchemists of the Middle Ages described the construction of magical appliances for viewing future events, or speaking to friends distant or dead. Paracelsus described the construction of a mirror of electrum magicum with such properties […]

Today, modern alchemists have at their command tools of clarity and power unimagined by their predecessors. Computer screens are magical mirrors, presenting alternate realities at varying degrees of abstraction on command (invocation). Nineteenth-century occult legend Aleister Crowley defines magick – with a k [Crowley’s spelling] – as “the art and science of causing change to occur in conformity to our will.” To this end, the computer is the latter-day lever of Archimedes with which we can move the world.

According to Leary, the revolution of individualism and freedom started by the hippies in the 60s was continued in the 80s, by young people using cybernetic technology to undermine authoritarian social structures and create their own digital realities. In Chaos & Cyberculture, Leary predicts that psychedelic drugs and computers will help this movement to create a post-political “cyber-society” that is based on individual freedom and “Ecstasy,” defined by Leary as “the experience of attaining freedom of limitations, self imposed or external.” Electronic technology would enable us to free ourselves from dogmatic social structures and create our own cyber-realities (cyberspace). Speaking of computer technology, in reference to McLuhan’s famous phrase, Leary explains that, “The medium is the message of cultural evolution.” According to Leary, a cyberpunk is “a resourceful, skillful individual who accesses and steers knowledge communication technology toward his/her own private goals, for personal pleasure, profit, principle, or growth” Leary created the cyberpunk code “Think for yourself; question authority.”

Mondo 2000

Rheingold, along with Timothy Leary, Albert Hoffmann, Terence McKenna and Robert Anton Wilson were often featured in the first cyberculture magazine Mondo 2000 which, along with the print version of Boing Boing, with which it shared several writers, including Mark Frauenfelder, Richard Kadrey, Gareth Branwyn, and Jon Lebkowsky, helped develop what was to become the cyberpunk subculture. According to Jon Lebkowsky, a contributing editor of the online magazine Hot Wired, the evolution of the cyberpunk subculture within the vibrant digital culture of today was mediated by two important events: One was the opening of the Internet. The other was the appearance of Mondo 2000, published in California during the 80s and 90s.

Mondo 2000’s editors were R.U. Sirius and Rudy Rucker, the great-great-great-grandson of Hegel, and also a member of the Church of the Subgenus. The author of both fiction and non-fiction, Rucker is best known for the novels in the Ware Tetralogy, the first two of which (Software and Wetware) won Philip K. Dick Awards. R.U. Sirius (born Ken Goffman) became the most prominent promoter of the cyberpunk ideology. R.U. Sirius has written for the San Francisco Examiner, Rolling Stone, Time, Esquire and served as a contributing writer for Artforum International, and has been a regular columnist for Wired.

According to Leary, Mondo 2000, which was subtitled A Space Age Newspaper of Psychedelics, Science, Human Potential, Irreverence and Modern Art, became “a beautiful merger of the psychedelic, the cybernetic, the cultural, the literary and the artistic.” Mondo 2000 was first called High Frontiers, and then evolved into Reality Hackers in 1998, created by Sirius and hacker Jude Milhon, to better reflect its drugs and computers theme. Milhon, who is also known by her pseudonym St. Jude, and coined the term “cyberpunk,” was a member of a “lefto-revolutionist programming commune” in Berkeley that created the legendary Community Memory project, the first public online computer system. Reality Hackers eventually evolved into Mondo 2000, and the focus of the magazine shifted from the coverage of psychedelics to cyberculture.

Leary, one of the contributing editors of the magazine, along with Global village prophet McLuhan and science fiction writer William Gibson, is portrayed as one of the most important pioneers of cyberspace. Many of Leary’s essays about the cyberpunks and the subversive potential of computers (the most important of which can be found in Chaos & Cyberculture) were first published in Mondo 2000. R.U. Sirius has taught an online course in Leary’s philosophy for the Maybe Logic Academy. He co-authored Leary’s last book, Design for Dying (1998), and wrote the introduction for a 1998 edition of Leary’s 1968 book The Politics of Ecstasy. In Design for Dying, Sirius argues that most of Leary’s predictions in his Eight Circuit model about future technological and cultural developments have come true.

As Mark Dery notes in Escape Velocity: Cyberculture at the End of the Century, Mondo 2000 had “one foot in the Aquarian age and the other in a Brave New World.” Featured in the magazine were the recurring themes of transhumanism, such as smart drugs, virtual reality, cyberpunk, interactive media, aphrodisiacs, artificial life, nanotechnology, brain implants, life extension, as well as designer aphrodisiacs, psychedelics, techno-erotic paganism, etc. Mondo 2000 encompassed a considerable range of subcultures, among them computer hackers, ravers, and New Age technophiles, and technopaganism, a subculture that combines neopaganism, including faiths such as Wicca and Neo-druidry with digital technology. In Mondo 2000: A User’s Guide to the New Edge, in an obvious allusion to Freemasonry, Rucker referred to their efforts as “The Great Work,” which in Freemasonry is equated with rebuilding the Temple of Solomon. Rucker goes so far as to compare their work to the cathedral builders of the Middle Ages, who according to Masonic lore were the Templars.

Also contributing to Mondo 2000 was Hakim Bey, founder of the Moorish Orthodox Church of America. Bey, along with Robert Anton Wilson and Rudy Rucker, also edited Semiotext(e) SF, a science fiction anthology released in 1989, which featured the writings of William S. Burroughs, Kerry Thornley, and authors who defined the cyberpunk genre such as William Gibson. Semiotext(e) SF was named as a science fiction version of Semiotext(e), the journal founded by Sylvère Lotringer. Semiotext(e) also published a translation of The Coming Insurrection, a French political tract that hypothesizes the “imminent collapse of capitalist culture.” The Coming Insurrection was mentioned in the New York Times, and also in the anti-consumerist magazine Adbusters in relation to the case of the Tarnac 9. In an interview with The Hollywood Reporter, Michael Moore mentioned the book as being the most recent one he had read. Glenn Beck, host of The Glenn Beck Program, has at various times referred to the book as “crazy” and “evil.” Beck has also urged his viewers to order the book online themselves, so as to better understand what he claimed were the thoughts of leftist radicals.

Discordian pranksterism thrived in IRC chat rooms, EFnet, and the 1990s hacker scene. Kembrew McLeod notes that Discordianism’s “irreverence had a certain appeal for the nascent hacker movement of the 1970s and 1980s, as well as other budding copyfighters,” and Robert Anton Wilson’s Illuminatus! “appealed to those who actively resisted systems—social, technological, legal—that imposed restrictions on the way we can play with, remix, or ‘hack’, computer code, culture, and even so-called reality.” Wilson, Illuminatus!, Eris and Discordianism all receive prominent entries in the New Hacker’s Dictionary, originally an online glossary of hacker’s slang, and Wilson was regarded as somewhat of a “hero” to hackers. Often used in computer subcultures is the word “Fnord,” which was coined in 1965 by Kerry Thornley and Greg Hill in the Principia Discordia and popularized following its use in The Illuminatus! Trilogy. It is used in newsgroup and hacker culture to indicate that someone is being ironic, humorous or surreal.

Cypherpunks

R.U. Sirius was chairman and candidate in the 2000 US presidential election for the Revolution Party, whose 20-point platform was a hybrid of libertarianism and liberalism. Leary was also a libertarian and supported the candidacy of Ron Paul for president in 1988 as leader of the Libertarian Party. A floppy disk was sent out as an invitation to a Ron Paul fundraiser hosted by Timothy Leary which contained software credited by the Libertech Project for those who “like the idea of techno-thwarting government abuse” and was “distributed free to Libertarians, Objectivists, Discordians, Cyberpunks, Survivalists, Soldiers of Fortune, Hackers, Entropists, Deltaphiles and similar types…” The disk contained DOS programs generating fractal graphics and a copy of the paper, “From Crossbows to Cryptography: Thwarting the State via Technology” by Discordian and libertarian activist Chuck Hammill, given at the Future of Freedom Conference in November 1987, who concluded, “Consider that, for a fraction of the investment in time, money and effort I might expend in trying to convince the state to abolish wiretapping and all forms of censorship — I can teach every libertarian who’s interested how to use cryptography to abolish them unilaterally.”

Hammill’s article was the first post on a mailing list started in 1992 by Tm May, John Gilmore and Eric Hugues, list for radical libertarians who called themselves cypherpunks. Gilmore was a member of the WELL, and one of the founders of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundation. As the fifth employee of Sun Microsystems and founder of Cygnus Support, Gilmore became wealthy enough to retire early and pursue other interests. Tim May argued that, “Politics has never given anyone lasting freedom, and it never will,” and proposed that new software was needed that could help people evade government surveillance. The cyberpunks hoped and believed their endeavors would eventually bring about an economic, political and social revolution. The first mass media discussion of cypherpunks was in “Crypto Rebels” by Steven Levy, in a 1993 issue of Wired, which featured May, Hughes and Gilmore masked on the cover.

In 1994, May published Cyphernomicon, intended to be similar to H.P. Lovecraft’s Necronomicon, his manifesto of the cypherpunk world view, on the list. In it, May explained that “many of use are explicitly antidemocratic and hope to use encryption to undermine the co-called democratic governments of the world.” The document outlined some ideas behind, and the effects of, crypto-anarchism, and advocated anonymous digital currency and electronic privacy, and touching on more esoteric topics, such as assassination markets.

The cypherpunks on the list were advised to read cult science-fiction novels like The Shockwave Rider and Vernor Vinge’s transhumanist True Names Names, which is widely considered to be the visionary work behind the internet revolution, David Chaum’s paper “Security without identification: Transaction Systems to Make Big Brother Obsolete” and Atlas Shrugged. The list also included Julian Assange, who would later found WikiLeaks, who shared the list’s libertarian principles. In the introduction to Cypherpunks, Assange remarked: “the Internet, our greatest tool for emancipation, has been transformed into the most dangerous facilitator of totalitarianism we have ever seen.” Assange launched WikiLeaks in 2006, to put his libertarian ideas into practice.

When he was a child, Assange’s mother was briefly married to a man who belonged to a powerful Australian New Age cult called the Family, influenced by H.P Blavatsky. The group, which was also known as the Great White Brotherhood, was formed in the mid-1960s under the leadership of yoga teacher Anne Hamilton-Byrne. Among her followers was Dr. Raynor Johnson, who was Master of Queen’s College at Melbourne University, and connected with the Society for Psychical Research in London. They revered her as the reincarnation of Jesus Christ and a living god. Under the influence of LSD, Hamilton-Byrne claimed she had a vision to collect children and raise them as her family to protect them from the coming global apocalypse. The family, who represented a “master race” would then educate the world after Armageddon.

A number of members were doctors who persuaded mothers to give up their newborn children to her. It emerged that over the years Hamilton-Byrne had collected 28 children. The children’s identities were changed using false birth certificates, all given the surname “Hamilton-Byrne” and dressed alike even to the extent of their hair being dyed uniformly blonde. The children were dosed with LSD and subjected to cruel punishments and food deprivation. Assange’s step-father had been “a sinister presence” who sought to have “a certain psychological power” over his family, Assange said. When the man became abusive, Julian and his mother escaped. Though Assange suspected the cult had moles in the government who provided the ex-husband leads on their whereabouts.

All former participants of the WELL, John Gilmore, Mitch Kapor and John Perry Barlow, a former lyricist for the Grateful Dead, founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), an international non-profit digital rights group in 1990. Kapor, who studied cybernetics at Yale, is widely known as founder of Lotus Development Corporation and the designer of Lotus 1-2-3, the “killer application” which made the personal computer ubiquitous in the business world in the 1980s. EFF was originally founded over their concerns about FBI suspicion of hacker activity, which they feared represented breaches of the Constitution. Barlow’s involvement in the EFF was shaped by his libertarian ideas, which were referenced in Cato Institute publications. Nevertheless, despite their purported advocacy for limitations to government intrusion, both Barlow and Kapor did work for the CIA. Using covert Masonic terminology, Barlow wrote of their activities, “Sometimes it seems as if all of humanity is engaged in a Great Work… which I imagine to be the hard-wiring of human consciousness.”

Open Source

Mitch Kapor was involved with the Shuttleworth Foundation, which along with the Open Society Institute, was involved in the promotion of the Open Source Movement. Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, was founded in 1993 by business magnate George Soros, to financially support civil society groups around the world, with a stated aim of advancing justice, education, public health and independent media. Soros attended the London School of Economics, where his mentor became Karl Popper, a friend of Friedrich Hayek. Popper wrote The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945), developing on the “open society” concept first conceived by Henri Bergson. As described by Nicolas Guilhot, a senior research associate of CNRS, “This ‘Austrian legacy’ is arguably a fundamental aspect of Soros’ intellectual formation and of the philanthropic ideology that he would later develop.

In 1984, Soros had signed a contract between the Soros Foundation (New York) and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the founding document of the Soros Foundation Budapest. In 1991 the foundation merged with the Fondation pour une Entraide Intellectuelle Européenne (FEIE), created in 1966 to cultivate “non-conformist” Eastern European scientists with anti-totalitarian and capitalist leanings. The FEIE was an affiliate of the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF), which as Francis Stonor Saunders has demonstrated in Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War, was a CIA front funded through the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations serving as conduits, to promote left-wing intellectuals to counter Soviet influence in Europe.

It was renowned hacker and anarchist Richard Stallman who clarified the meaning of “free” software in the sense not of “free beer” but free as in “free speech” (Stallman, n.d.). Stallman is credited with founding the free software movement, drawing on anti-establishment traditions of the 1970s hacker culture and academia, which inspired the rise of technolibertarianism (Rand, n.d.). In 1983, Stallman launched the GNU Project, a free-software, mass-collaboration project. Stallman later established the Free Software Foundation in 1985 to support the movement. In 1991, Linus Torvalds used the GNU’s development tools to produce the free monolithic Linux kernel.

In 1997, Eric S. Raymond published the influential The Cathedral and the Bazaar, which analyzed the hacker community and the principles of free software. Raymond and others looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was “open source”, which was soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O’Reilly, Linus Torvalds, and others. In 1996 and 1997, while still working at Pixar, Perens served as Debian Project Leader, coordinating development of the Debian open source operating system. He replaced Debian’s creator Ian Murdock. As one of the earliest operating systems based on the Linux kernel, it was decided that Debian was to be developed openly and freely distributed in the spirit of the GNU Project.

In 1998, Perens and Raymond established the Open Source Initiative, and published the Open Source Definition to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open source principles (Fogel, 2016, p. 233). Perens modified the Debian Free Software Guidelines into the Open Source Definition by removing Debian references and replacing them with “Open Source”. The definition is recognized by governments internationally, and by many of the world’s largest open source software projects, including Drupal, Linux, Mozilla, Wikimedia, WordPress.

The open educational resources (OER) movement originated from developments in open and distance learning (ODL) and in the wider context of a culture of open knowledge, open source, free sharing and peer collaboration. A connection was first established in 1998 by David Wiley, who coined the term open content and introduced the concept by analogy with open source.

However, as remarked in 2007 by Guilhot, despite their reputations as supporters of liberal causes, the Open Society Foundations serve to perpetuate institutions that reinforce the existing social order, as the Ford Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation have done before them, reinforcing the cause of capitalism and global institutions. A seminal event in the history of open education was a meeting convened in Cape Town on September 2007, by the Open Society Institute and the Shuttleworth Foundation. The event produced a manifesto titled The Cape Town Open Education Declaration, which urged governments, educators and publishers to “commit to the pursuit and promotion of open education.”

The Shuttleworth Foundation, the other supporter of the Cape Town conference, was established in January 2001 by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth as an experiment with the purpose of providing funding for people engaged in social change. Shuttleworth is the founder and CEO of Canonical Ltd., the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system. Notable past and present fellows include Marcin Jakubowski (who develops the Open Source Ecology project), Rufus Pollock (co-founder of the Open Knowledge Foundation) and Mark Surman (now Executive Director of Mozilla Foundation). Mitch Kapor was the president and chair of the Open Source Applications Foundation, and in 2003, he had become the founding chair of the Mozilla Foundation, creator of the open source web browser Firefox. In 2005, Rufus Pollock, by referring to the Open Source Definition, created the Open Definition, a document published by the Open Knowledge Foundation (now Open Knowledge International (OKI)), which provided the first formal definition of open content and open data, and which has remained the standard reference definition.

Mimetic Theory

A notorious exponent of technolibertarianism is Trump backer Peter Thiel, who together with Elon Musk is the most influential member of the “PayPal mafia,” as well as founder of the CIA-backed Palantir, the first investor of Facebook, and who is listed as a Steering Committee member of the infamous Bilderberg Group. Revealing the source of his grandiose ambition, Peter Thiel admitted, “The fate of our world may depend on the effort a single person who builds or propagates the machinery of freedom that makes the world safe for capitalism.” As Youssef El-Gingihy remarked in “How Silicon Valley, spooks and the super rich took control of the 21st century” in the Independent, “It appears that Thiel conceives of himself as this John Galt-type heroic figure lifted straight out of the pages of Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged.”

While in university, Thiel co-founded The Stanford Review, a conservative and libertarian newspaper, in 1987 with funding from the father of the neoconservative movement, Irving Kristol, who had operated Commentary magazine as a CIA front. After graduating from Stanford Law School, Thiel clerked for Judge James Larry Edmondson of the United States Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit. He then worked as a securities lawyer in New York for Sullivan & Cromwell, whose origins is linked to the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (SOSJ), and was where Allen Dulles began his career. In 1993, he then took a job as a derivatives trader in currency options at Credit Suisse, while also working as a speechwriter for former United States Secretary of Education William Bennett. In 1981, President Reagan nominated Mel Bradford to chair the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), but due to Bradford’s pro-Confederate views, Bennett was appointed in his place, leading to the divide between the paleoconservatives, who backed Bradford, and neoconservatives, led by Irving Kristol, who supported Bennett.

While at Stanford, Thiel met René Girard (1923 – 2015), a French philosopher and member of the Académie française, whose mimetic theory influenced him. Girard is a professed Roman Catholic, but Nietzsche is one of his main influences, and his theology is highly unorthodox. According to Girard mimetic theory, we borrow our desires from others. All conflict therefore originates in mimetic desire, which eventually reaches destructive stages when social groups tend to blame someone or something in order to defuse conflict through the scapegoat mechanism, and idea he borrowed from James Frazer’s concept of the killing of the sacred king. For Girard, religion and mythology were therefore necessary steps in human evolution to control the violence that arises from mimetic rivalry, by redirecting the scapegoat tendency on imaginary concepts, such as Satan or demons. Thiel claimed Girard’s explanation of the role of sacrifice and the scapegoat mechanism in resolving social conflict, which appealed to him as it offered a basis for his Christian faith without the fundamentalism of his parents.

Thiel returned to the Bay Area in the midst of the dot-com boom, and established of Thiel Capital Management to embark on his venture capital career. He co-founded PayPal in 1998, serving as CEO until its sale to eBay in 2002 for $1.5 billion. After PayPal, he founded Clarium Capital, a hedge fund based in San Francisco. In 2004, he launched the CIA-backed Palantir Technologies, which is often cited as the source of the intel that allowed the Americans to capture Osama bin Laden. Thiel played Dungeons & Dragons, was an avid reader of science fiction, with Isaac Asimov and OTO member Robert A. Heinlein among his favorite authors, and a fan of J.R.R. Tolkien’s works, having read The Lord of the Rings over ten times. Six firms that he founded, including Palantir Technologies, Valar Ventures, Mithril Capital, Lembas LLC, Rivendell LLC and Arda Capital, adopted names originating from Tolkien. Thiel named Palantir after the crystal ball used by evil lord Sauron in The Lord of the Rings.

Thiel founded Palantir with Alex Karp, who has a doctorate in neoclassical social theory from Frankfurt University, where his advisor was Jürgen Habermas, a leading thinker of the Frankfurt School. Moira Weigel’s recent article “Palantir Goes to the Frankfurt School” sheds light on the right-wing ideology behind Karp’s dissertation, “Aggression in the Life-World,” which he submitted to the faculty of social sciences at J.W. Goethe University of Frankfurt in 2002. Karp identifies himself as a “neo-Marxist” and even a socialist. Karp’s primary advisor was Karola Brede, published a critique of GRECE member Konrad Lorenz’s bestselling work, On Aggression. Karp’s dissertation, explains Weigel, offers a “systematic” reinterpretation of Theodor Adorno’s Jargon of Authenticity—a critique of the language used by German existentialists like Martin Heidegger in particular—and “aims to describe the role that aggression plays in social integration, or the set of processes that lead individuals in a given society to feel bound to one another.” Looking for what Thiel and Karp would have in common, Wiegel points out that Aggression in the Life World demonstrates that both of them “regard the desire to commit violence as a constant, founding fact of human life.”

According to Geoff Shullenberger, the philosophical basis for Thiel’s founding of Palantir is found in an essay titled “The Straussian Moment,” published in 2007 in the volume Politics and Apocalypse, to explore the relationship of the ideas of Leo Strauss and his friend Carl Schmitt, the former “Crown Jurist” of the Third Reich, and key figure of the German Conservative Revolution, and their relationship to the mimetic theory of Girard. According to Thiel, adopting Schmitt’s rejection of the Enlightenment, 9/11 “called into question… the entire political and military framework of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and indeed of the modern age.” Effectively, Thiel believes that the West has become squeamish about violence, as a legacy of the Enlightenment and its search for rational alternatives. Instead, Thiel proposes, Schmitt’s the Concept of the Political, helps us to realize that the dichotomy of us versus an enemy is inevitable. Thiel quotes Strauss as saying that “[i]nstead of the United Nations, filled with interminable and inconclusive parliamentary debates… we should consider Echelon, the secret coordination of the world’s intelligence services, as the decisive path to a truly global pax Americana.” Thiel saw Palantir as a “mission-oriented company” which could apply software similar to PayPal’s fraud recognition systems to “reduce terrorism while preserving civil liberties.”

Neoreaction (NRx)

Thiel is also an exponent of a right-wing philosophy known as neoreaction. The network of political philosophers who have shaped Bannon’s thinking and who subsequently exercised influence in the White House, included Curtis Yarvin, the exponent of the philosophy of neoreaction adopted by Thiel, as well was Lebanese-American author Nassim Nicholas Taleb, and conservative intellectual Michael Anton. According to Yarvin, “Anyone can believe in the truth. To believe in nonsense is an unforgeable demonstration of loyalty. It serves as a political uniform. And if you have a uniform, you have an army.”

Many political onlookers described Trump’s election as a “black swan” event, in reference to Taleb’s book by the same name. The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable focuses on the extreme impact of certain kinds of rare and unpredictable events (outliers) and people’s tendency to find simplistic explanations for these events retrospectively. The term was popularized by Taleb, the best-selling 2014 book Antifragile, which has been read and circulated by Bannon and his aides. “Antifragility,” explains Taleb, is beyond resilience or robustness. The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better.” “They look like the incarnation of ‘antifragile’ people,” Taleb said of the new administration.

“The label blends together straight-up white supremacists, nationalists who think conservatives have sold out to globalization, and nativists who fear immigration will spur civil disarray. But at its core,” says Dylan Matthews of Vox of the alt-right, “are the ideas of a movement known as neoreaction, and neoreaction (NRx for short) is a rejection of democracy.” NRx, or the Dark Enlightenment as it is also called, is an anti-democratic and reactionary movement that broadly rejects egalitarianism and also draws influence from philosophers such as Thomas Carlyle and Julius Evola. The movement favors a return to older societal constructs and forms of government, including support for monarchism and traditional gender roles, coupled with a libertarian or otherwise conservative approach to economics. The general goal of the neoreactionaries is the restoration of all culturally European countries to their pre-liberal, pre-democratic, pre-feminist, pre-multicultural state, effectively, to the state of Europe prior to the enlightenment.

The NRx subculture started amongst the Bay Area technolibertarians, particularly including the transhumanists. In 2007 and 2008, American computer scientist Curtis Yarvin, creator of the Urbit computing platform writing under the nom de plume Mencius Moldbug, articulated what would develop into Dark Enlightenment thinking. Yarvin’s theories were later the subject of English author and philosopher Nick Land, who first coined the term “Dark Enlightenment” in his essay of the same name. According to Land:

NRx doesn’t think the Alt-Right (in America) is very serious. It’s an essentially Anti-Anglo-American philosophy, in its (Duginist) core, which puts a firm ceiling on its potential,” Land said. “But then, the NRx analysis is that the age of the masses is virtually over. Riled-up populist movements are part of what is passing, rather than of what is slouching toward Bethlehem to be born.

Land was a lecturer in Continental Philosophy at the University of Warwick from 1987 until his resignation in 1998. At Warwick, he and Sadie Plant co-founded the Cybernetic Culture Research Unit. Plant is a British philosopher whose original research was related to the Situationist International before turning to cyber-technology. She published The Most Radical Gesture: The Situationist International in a Postmodern Age in 1992. Her writing in the 1990s would prove profound in the development of cyberfeminism. Land is the author of The Thirst for Annihilation: Georges Bataille and Virulent Nihilism, published in 1992.

Pax Dickinson, the former CTO of Business Insider, says he’s been influenced by neoreactionary thought, and PayPal founder Peter Thiel has voiced similar ideas. Thiel, who is openly gay, is a friend of Ann Coulter, who dedicated her new book, Demonic: How the Liberal Mob Is Endangering America, to him. Thiel was a major backer of Ron Paul in 2012. In a 2009 article for the Cato Institute, Thiel wrote of his commitment to “authentic human freedom as a precondition for the highest good. I stand against confiscatory taxes, totalitarian collectives, and the ideology of the inevitability of the death of every individual.”

Rod Martin, a member of the Board of Governors of the CNP, is part of what insiders term “the Peter Thiel keiretsu.” Martin served as Thiel’s Special Counsel during Paypal’s startup, IPO and merger with eBay, and later at Thiel’s Clarium Capital. Martin is the founder and Chairman of radical conservative group TheVanguard.Org, founded in 2006 as a conservative response to the success of MoveOn.org. In addition to Thiel, its board includes Gil Amelio, best remembered as a CEO of National Semiconductor and Apple, Americans for Tax Reform founder Grover Norquist, as well as Club for Growth founder and current Wall Street Journal editorial board member Stephen Moore, famed actress Jane Russell, and Reagan Doctrine-architect Jack Wheeler.

Neoreactionaries want to see a captain of industry installed as a de facto king of America, often identifying Thiel or Elon Musk as that most appropriate person. Recently they have also taken to voicing support for Presidential candidate Donald Trump. Yarvin has reportedly opened up a line to the White House, communicating with Bannon and his aides through an intermediary, Politico reported. In 2016, Thiel became one of the pledged California delegates for Trump at the 2016 Republican National Convention, and in November, Thiel was named to the executive committee of Trump’s transition team. As MrAnon for The Daily Kos explained: “A lone billionaire seizing the power of the executive branch for himself, and proceeding to run the government like they would a private corporation is the embodiment of their goal.”

Thanks to a reference from Thiel, Anton now has a place on the National Security Council staff. In his popular article “The Flight 93 Election,” published in September 2016 under a pseudonym, “America and the West are on a trajectory toward something very bad,” he wrote. “2016 is the Flight 93 election: charge the cockpit or you die,” he explained. “You may die anyway. You—or the leader of your party—may make it into the cockpit and not know how to fly or land the plane. There are no guarantees.” While noting that noting that he’s not sure Trumpism will work, he argues that it’s worth trying, given the alternative: “[T]he ceaseless importation of Third World foreigners with no tradition of, taste for, or experience in liberty means that the electorate grows more left, more Democratic, less Republican, less republican, and less traditionally American with every cycle.” Anton’s article was published by the Claremont Institute, whose president at the time was Michael Pack, a documentarian who served on the National Council of the National Endowment for Humanities and as senior vice president of Television Programming at the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and who collaborated with Steve Bannon on two films.

From the book, Ordo ab Chao, by David Livingstone

Volume Six, Techno-Libertarianism

Ordo Ab Chao: Jekyll Island Club

It was Walter Lippmann who recommended Allen Dulles—a former lawyer for Sullivan & Cromwell, and future head of the CIA—as a top recruit for Col. House’s plan to use the United States relief program in Europe after the war as cover for intelligence activities. Allen and his brother John Foster were in the employ of the prestigious New York law firm Sullivan and Cromwell, which represented the Kuhn Loeb Company. Sullivan and Cromwell was founded in 1879 by William Nelson Cromwell, the head of Grand Prior of the SOSJ in America.

Col. House did not hold office but was an “executive agent,” and President Woodrow Wilson’s chief advisor on European politics and diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference. In 1911, prior to Wilson’s taking office as President, House completed a book called Philip Dru, Administrator. Though written as a novel, it was actually a detailed plan for the future government of the United States, “which would establish Socialism as dreamed by Karl Marx,” according to House. It was published anonymously and widely circulated among government officials, who were left in no doubt as to its authorship. The novel predicted the enactment of the graduated income tax, excess profits tax, unemployment insurance, social security and a flexible currency system. In short, it was the blueprint which was later followed by the Woodrow Wilson and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt administrations.

One of the institutions outlined in Philip Dru was the Federal Reserve System. The Federal Reserve was created in 1913, founded on the desire for central control of the monetary system in order to alleviate financial crises. Early in 1907, New York Times Annual Financial Review published Paul Warburg’s first official reform plan, entitled “A Plan for a Modified Central Bank,” in which he outlined solutions he thought might avert panics. Early in 1907, Jacob Schiff, in a speech to the New York Chamber of Commerce, warned that “unless we have a central bank with adequate control of credit resources, this country is going to undergo the most severe and far reaching money panic in its history.” “The Panic of 1907” ensued in October.

George Sylvester Viereck, who knew Col. House for years, later wrote an account of Wilson’s relationship with House, The Strangest Friendship in History. According to Viereck, “The Schiffs, the Warburgs, the Kahns, the Rockefeller’s, the Morgans put their trust in House. When the Federal Reserve legislation at last assumed definite shape, House was the intermediary between the White House and the financiers.” What later became the basis of the Federal Reserve Act was crafted during a secret meeting on Jekyll Island in 1910. The conference attendees had obtained permission from J.P. Morgan to use the facilities of the Jekyll Island Club, a private club, whose members came from many of the world’s wealthiest families, most notably the Rockefellers, Morgans, Vanderbilts and others associated with the SOSJ. The “duck hunt” included Senator Nelson Aldrich, his personal secretary Arthur Shelton, former Harvard University professor of economics Dr. A. Piatt Andrew, J.P. Morgan & Co. partner Henry P. Davison, National City Bank president Frank A. Vanderlip and Paul Warburg. After the war, the Federal Reserve, led by Paul Warburg and New York Governor Bank President Benjamin Strong, convinced Congress to modify its powers, giving it the ability to both create money, as the 1913 Act intended, and destroy money, as a central bank could.

From the book, Ordo ab Chao, by David Livingstone.

Volume Three, League of Nations

Ordo ab Chao: Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem

The Inquiry, which included Walter Lippmann as well, met to assemble the strategy for the postwar world. According to The Anglo-American Establishment by Carroll Quigley, Col. House, along with Walter Lippmann, J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie, were all members of the Round Table. Like his son, J.P. Morgan Jr., J.P. Morgan belonged to the American branch of the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (SOSJ), part of the Russian Tradition of the Knights Hospitaller, which evolved from the Knights of Malta. In 1893, the Russian Ambassador to the United States, Prince Cantacuzene, Russian Admiral Grand Duke Alexander Michaelovich (1866 – 1933) and Russian Transportation Commissioner Colonel A. Cherep Spiridovich (1867 – 1926), the former head of the Okhrana, who wrote a biography of Rasputin, introduced the Russian SOSJ White Cross at the Chicago World’s Fair to American civic leaders. The Grand Duke was the son of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, the youngest son of Nicholas I of Russia, and Grand Duchess Olga Feodorovna. Grand Duke Alexander directed the assassination of the spiritualist monk Gregori Rasputin in late 1916. The men directly involved in the murder of Rasputin were the Grand Duke’s sons, son-in-law, cousin and a member of British MI6.

The SOSJ was legitimately continued outside of Russia by Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich of Russia (1876 – 1938), son of the Russian SOSJ Grand Prior, Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia (1847 – 1909). Kirill was the legal heir to the Russian throne as he was third in line behind the heir of Russia’s last Tsar, Nicholas II. Kirill was the son of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, a grandson of Emperor Alexander II and a first cousin of Nicholas II. Kirill married his paternal first cousin, the granddaughter of Queen Victoria, Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Their granddaughter, Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna, is the current claimant to the headship of the House of Romanov.

Grand Duke Kirill assisted Richard Teller Crane of Chicago with plans to organize the American White Cross in New York City. Richard Teller Crane I (1832 – 1912) was the founder of R.T. Crane & Bro., a Chicago-based manufacturer, later Crane Co.. He was also a member of the famous Jekyll Island Club (aka The Millionaires Club) on Jekyll Island, Georgia, whose members came from many of the world’s wealthiest families, most notably the Morgans, Rockefellers, and Vanderbilts.

The American White Cross was designed for intelligence gathering operations. In 1901, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) headquartered in Rome, and Cardinal Gibbons, announced that an American Grand Priory would be started solely for the American Catholic members of a fraternal organization called the “Knights of St. John” which had been started about 1880 in imitation of the old order. In 1904, the American White Cross First Aid Society was started in Chicago by civic leader Mrs. Potter Palmer, Roman Catholic Cardinal Gibbons, the industrialist Andrew Carnegie, representatives of the U.S. Army and Edward Howe, formerly the American Red Cross Field Superintendent. A similar arrangement existed in England between the Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the British Red Cross.

An early and prominent member of the American White Cross was Wall Street lawyer William Nelson Cromwell (1854 – 1948). Future CIA chief Allen Dulles would later work for the law firm of Sullivan & Cromwell, founded in 1879 by Cromwell and Algernon Sydney, which gained renown for its business and commercial law practices and its impact on international affairs. The firm advised John Pierpont Morgan during the creation of Edison General Electric (1882) and later guided key players in the formation of U.S. Steel (1901). American Grand Priory leaders, Nicholas Murray Butler, President of Columbia University, Archer Huntington, founder of the Hispanic Society of America, William Nelson Cromwell, Wall Street lawyer and Francis C. Nicholas, founder of the American International Academy, are among those who crafted the American Grand Priory into an intelligence organization. Some results of their careers include the founding of the Republic of Panama and the successful purchase and construction of the Panama Canal. They were also responsible for the founding of the Pan-American “Organization of American States” and directly influenced the founders of the Central Intelligence Agency. Cromwell was responsible for the success of, among many other projects, McCormick Harvester, Carnegie’s U.S. Steel Corporation and the Panama Canal. He became Grand Prior of the American SOSJ in 1912.

An epidemic of political assassinations and the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905 prompted the expansion of the Order into the United States. In 1905, Count Alexis Ignatiev, Commander of the SOSJ Chevalier Guards, was assassinated in Russia. Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich was also assassinated. These events hastened the development of a permanent presence of the Knights of St. John in America. Cherep Spiridovich, President, was among the coordinators of this expansion. The American Grand Priory also had a history of cooperation with members of the monarchist and anti-Semitic Russian Black Hundred’s Movement due to their association with Cherep Spiridovich. As an intelligence operative, he was handled by the Russian Ambassador to the U. S., Baron Rosen.

In 1909, Grand Duke Vladimir was assassinated in Russia, and his son, Grand Duke Kirill, thereby became Grand Prior of the SOSJ Russian Grand Priory. William Nelson Cromwell became American Grand Prior in 1912, and meetings thereafter were usually held at his offices in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The name of the hotel is ultimately derived from the town of Walldorf in Germany, the ancestral home of the prominent German-American Astor family who originated there. Others prominent in the OSJ at this time included John Jacob Astor until his death on the Titanic, J.P. Morgan, his son J.P Morgan, Jr. and the extended Cornelius Vanderbilt and Chicago Crane families. The Chicago Crane family affiliation with the White Cross eventually led, in 1941, to their daughter Frances’ marriage to OSJ Hereditary Knight Commander Belosselsky-Belozersky, in New York City. Charles R. Crane, son of R.T. Crane, became a philanthropist, diplomat, and, unfortunately, a financial supporter of the first Russian revolution of 1917.

The American Grand Priory leaders were mostly socially prominent Protestant Episcopalians from New York City and Chicago. There was also a small group of American descendants of Catholic Jacobites, who were still followers of the old Stuart Pretender to the throne of England and Scotland. The Pretender at the time was Queen Mary IV of Bavaria (1849 – 1919), and an army physician and OSJ member Edgar Erskine Hume was among those who later considered Mary’s successor, Bavarian Crown Prince Rupprecht (1869 – 1955), as his “rightful sovereign.” The American Grand Prior, William Nelson Cromwell, and Dr. Francis C. Nicholas had had contact with Spanish Knights of St. John during years of preparation work for the American Panama Canal project. Interaction with the Spanish knights was also the result of Americans meeting Spanish knights during the Spanish-American War from 1898 to 1900, and later during the Mexican civil wars. The remnant Castellany of Guadalajara, Mexico, of the Spanish Order of St. John the Baptist joined the American Grand Priory with their monarchist Pretender, Don Agustin Yturbide. King Alphonso XIII of Spain was the protector of the remnants of the Spanish Order which was given a papal blessing as late as 1879. He expanded his association to the SOSJ in America.

According to SOSJ’s own history, “The American Grand Priory was peopled with the scions of Wall Street and the ‘Eastern Establishment.’ These men and women, many of them active or reserve officers in the military, worked with the fledgling western military intelligence communities and made the Grand Priory the first civilian foreign intelligence organization in the United States.” As a result of the “success” of SOSJ international ventures, President Wilson and Col. House had created “The Inquiry” at the American Grand Priory headquarters on upper Broadway in New York City in 1917, which became the internationalist advisory Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) in 1921.

From the book, Ordo ab Chao, by David Livingstone.

Volume Three, League of Nations

Ordo ab Chao: Paleoconservatives

Paleoconservatives are most distinctive in their emphatic opposition to open immigration by non-Europeans, and their general disapproval of U.S. intervention overseas. The prefix “paleo” derives from the Greek root “palaeo” meaning “ancient” or “old,” and refers to the paleoconservatives’ claim to represent a revival of the Old Right, in contradistinction to neoconservatism. The term “paleoconservative” was coined in 1986 by Jewish academic Paul Gottfried, who served as an adviser to Buchanan’s campaign. With Buchanan being a Knight of Malta, Gottfried once noted an “occasional paleo association with over-the-top Catholicism.” In fact, counter-revolutionary, Roman Catholic European precursors to the Catholic paleoconservatives include Joseph de Maistre and Charles Maurras of Action française. Some modern European right-wing intellectuals, such as Alain de Benoist of the Nouvelle Droite, are also esteemed by many paleoconservatives.

A professor of Humanities at Elizabethtown College in Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania, Gottfried is the author of numerous books and articles detailing the influences which various German thinkers, such as Hegel and Schelling, have exerted on American conservative political theory, and was a friend of many political and intellectual figures, such as Richard Nixon, Pat Buchanan, Samuel T. Francis and Murray Rothbard. Gottfried attended Yeshiva University in New York as an undergraduate and then attended Yale, where he studied under Herbert Marcuse. Gottfried devoted a chapter of his memoir to Marcuse, under whom he was a “rapt, indulgent disciple.” In later years, one reviewer called Gottfried a “right-wing proponent of the Frankfurt school.”

Gottfried became involved with the New Left journal Telos, established in 1968. Telos began introducing the ideas of Western Marxism and of the critical theory of the Frankfurt School. However, with the disintegration of the New Left, Telos flip-flopped to the other end of the ideological spectrum. Largely under Gottfried’s influence, Telos began focusing on the ideas of Carl Schmitt and Alain de Benoist. Telos’ editor-in-chief is Russell Berman, an American professor of German Studies and Comparative Literature, and a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution. Founded in 1919 by Republican Herbert Hoover, the institution has been a place of scholarship for individuals who previously held high-profile positions in government, such as George Shultz, Condoleezza Rice, Michael Boskin, Edward Lazear, John B. Taylor, Edwin Meese, and Amy Zegart.

Gottfried complained regularly in his writing about “ill-mannered, touchy Jews and their groveling or adulatory Christian assistants”—his phrase for neocons who he claimed had hijacked the Republican Party and American policy. He opposes both the Civil Rights Act and white nationalism. “If someone were to ask me what distinguishes the right from the left,” Gottfried wrote in 2008, “the difference that comes to mind most readily centers on equality. The left favors that principle, while the right regards it as an unhealthy obsession.” According to Gottfried in The Conservative Movement: “[The paleoconservatives] raise issues that the neoconservatives and the left would both seek to keep closed… about the desirability of political and social equality, the functionality of human-rights thinking, and the genetic basis of intelligence… like Nietzsche, they go after democratic idols, driven by disdain for what they believe dehumanizes.”

Gottfried worked closely with Samuel T. Francis, a non-Catholic paleoconservative and friend of Pat Buchanan. In 1986, Francis joined the editorial staff of The Washington Times as an editorial writer, and was editor of the Citizens Informer quarterly newsletter, as well as an editor of The Occidental Quarterly, a white nationalist and self-described “pro-Western” publication sponsored by William Regnery II. According to Gottfried, Francis had an encyclopedic knowledge of the literature of H.P. Lovecraft.

Francis and Gottfried were both influenced by James Burnham’s seminal work, The Managerial Revolution, in which he suggested that a new form of society was emerging to replace capitalism, composed of a ruling class of “managers.” Michael Shelden, author of Orwell: The Authorized Biography, saw Burnham’s work as having an influence on Orwell’s novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. For Francis and Gottfried, the managerial state is an ongoing regime that remains in power, regardless of what political party holds a majority. According to Gottfried, when the managerial regime cannot get democratic support for its policies, it resorts to sanctimony and social engineering, including mass welfarism, positive rights, laws punishing racism, sexism and homophobia, and centralized control of public education.

In part based on Burnham’s idea of the “managerial revolution,” Francis developed a theory for a new populist movement based on the idea of “Middle American Radicals” who could provide a social base for resistance. According to Francis, “If we could somehow take out the ideology, change the minds of those who control the state, and convert them into paleo-conservatives, the state apparatus itself would be neutral.” In Francis’ opinion, the Republicans have failed to tap into the sentiments of “Middle Americans” because of their focus on free-enterprise economics and support for globalist policies. He believed that while Buchanan may not have won the presidential campaigns in either 1992 or 1995, his relative success marked a victory in mobilizing forces that would only continue to build over time:

‘The importance of the Buchanan campaign lies not in its capacity to win the nomination or the national election but in its organization of those forces into a coherent political coalition. That coalition includes the remnants of the “Old Right,” as well as various single-issue constituencies (pro-lifers, anti-immigration activists, protectionists) to which Buchanan is one of the few voices to speak.”

For the most part, Francis explained, conventional conservative causes such as small government, low taxes, strong national defense and economic growth are “bourgeois” issues that belong to a different era. However, according to Francis, former Klansman David Duke’s defeat in the Louisiana gubernatorial election of 1991 marked a “turning point” in American history. After leaving the Klan, Duke formed the National Association for the Advancement of White People (NAAWP), which he claimed was a civil rights organization designed to protect the identity and interests of Caucasian Americans. A former one-term Republican Louisiana State Representative, he was a candidate in the Democratic presidential primaries in 1988 and the Republican presidential primaries in 1992. Duke’s chief accomplishment was to rebrand white supremacism and present a more polished image. “In Duke’s hands, racism takes on a people-loving, positive spin,” observed Village Voice correspondent Leslie Savan. “There’s nothing wrong with black people being proud of their heritage and their race,” Duke insisted, “There’s nothing wrong with white people being proud of theirs.”

In Francis’ opinion, Duke managed to “redefine the ideological pivots around which American politics revolve” by demonstrating the real issues were racial. But Duke’s surprising popularity was due to his rebranding of racist ideas in a less objectionable form, by opposing quotas for affirmative action, multiculturalism, civil rights legislation and unrestricted immigration. The underlying message that resonated with voters, according to Francis, is that “the historic racial and cultural core of American civilization is under attack.” Francis therefore defined “authentic” conservatism as “the survival and enhancement of a particular people and its institutionalized cultural expressions.”

From the book, Ordo ab Chao, Volume Six, Culture Wars

Ordo ab Chao: Political Correctness

The right-wing propaganda against political correctness began with the neoconservatives. However, the paleoconservatives introduced a conspiratorial interpretation, exploiting anti-communist paranoia, by drawing attention to the Marxist origins of the Frankfurt School, and characterizing their program not only as an attack on Christian values, but on “white” civilization. The term used in their agenda, “political correctness,” was the predecessor of the more highly charged concept of “Cultural Marxism”—a conspiracy theory which sees the Frankfurt School’s supposed agenda aimed at attacking Western society, using political correctness to enforce the acceptance of feminism, multiculturalism, radical environmentalism and homosexuality.

Debra L. Shultz noted that “throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the New Left, feminists, and progressives… used their term ‘politically correct’ ironically, as a guard against their own orthodoxy in social change efforts.” The underlying assumptions of political correctness evolved from the field of cultural studies, which itself derived from the Frankfurt School’s critical theory. The New School has followed a tradition of synthesizing leftist American intellectual thought and critical European philosophy, particularly the teachings of Aristotle, Leibniz, Spinoza, Hume, Kant, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Marx, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Arendt, Freud, Benjamin, Wittgenstein, Foucault, and Derrida.

According to Paul Berman, political correctness in America evolved from the influences of Heidegger, Nietzsche, Freud, Lacan, Barthes, Derrida and Foucault, but with a tinge of a uniquely American conception of identity politics, which classifies people by “race, class and gender.” As Berman explained, politically correct thinking borrowed Derrida’s linguistics in the significance of the meaning of words, Foucault and the Nietzschean’s view of culture as a field for the struggle for political power, from Lacan and Freud the focus of the erotic and male domination, and an anti-imperialist adaptation of Heidegger’s view of the regrettable intellectual tradition of Western civilization.

Starting in the late 1980s, the well-funded conservative movement began their attack on what they characterized as a “liberal bias” in the media and academia. Enormously influential was University of Chicago philosophy professor Allan Bloom’s The Closing of the American Mind, published in 1987. A top protégé of Leo Strauss, Allan Bloom travelled to Paris annually to study Kojève’s Nietzschean fascist beliefs, from 1953 up until Kojève’s death in 1968. Bloom would consider Kojève to be one of his greatest teachers. Bloom argued that colleges were embracing “cultural relativism” and abandoning long-established disciplines and standards in an attempt to appear liberal and to pander to their students.

In April 1990, Roger Kimball, an editor at the conservative journal, The New Criterion, published Tenured Radicals: How Politics Has Corrupted our Higher Education. In June 1991, the young Dinesh D’Souza followed Bloom and Kimball with Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus. As John K. Wilson pointed out in The Myth of Political Correctness: The Conservative Attack on Higher Education, Bloom, Kimball and D’Souza were supported by grants from the Bradley, Olin and Scaife foundations.

These books did not emphasize the phrase “political correctness,” and only D’Souza used the phrase directly. Most Americans had never heard the phrase “politically correct” until all three came to be regularly cited in the stream of anti-PC articles that appeared in leading newspapers and magazines. One of the first and most influential was published in October 1990 by the New York Times reporter Richard Bernstein, who warned in an article titled “The Rising Hegemony of the Politically Correct,” that the country’s universities were threatened by “a growing intolerance, a closing of debate, a pressure to conform”.

The following month, the Wall Street Journal columnist Dorothy Rabinowitz denounced the “brave new world of ideological zealotry” at American universities. In December, the cover of Newsweek featured the headline “THOUGHT POLICE” and warned: “There’s a ‘politically correct’ way to talk about race, sex and ideas. Is this the New Enlightenment – or the New McCarthyism?” A similar story was featured on the cover of New York magazine in the January 1991 issue, which proclaimed that “The New Fascists” were taking over universities. In April, Time magazine reported on “a new intolerance” that was on the rise across campuses nationwide.

As explained by Moira Weigel in “Political correctness: how the right invented a phantom enemy,” published in The Guardian, many of these articles recycled the same stories of campus controversies from a handful of elite universities, often exaggerated or stripped of context. According to Weigel:

“PC was a useful invention for the Republican right because it helped the movement to drive a wedge between working-class people and the Democrats who claimed to speak for them. “Political correctness” became a term used to drum into the public imagination the idea that there was a deep divide between the “ordinary people” and the “liberal elite”, who sought to control the speech and thoughts of regular folk. Opposition to political correctness also became a way to rebrand racism in ways that were politically acceptable in the post-civil-rights era.”

Since the 1990s, the term “Cultural Marxism” has been appropriated by paleoconservatives, who referred to political correctness as part of their ongoing “Culture War” against liberalism. The phrase “culture war” represents a loan translation from the German Kulturkampf—referring to the clash between cultural and religious groups in the campaign from 1871 to 1878 under the pan-German policies of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck of the German Empire against the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

The concept of “Cultural Marxism” was popularized by the mass media in the early 1990s, and highlighted in 1991 by the first President Bush when he warned that “free speech [is] under assault throughout the United States,” in a commencement speech at the University of Michigan. “Ironically, on the 200th anniversary of our Bill of Rights, we find free speech under assault throughout the United States,” Bush said. “The notion of political correctness has ignited controversy across the land,” but, he warned, “In their own Orwellian way, crusades that demand correct behaviour crush diversity in the name of diversity.” By the end of 1992, feature stories on the phenomenon had appeared in Newsweek, New York magazine, The New Republic, Atlantic Monthly and the New York Review of Books.

From the book, Ordo ab Chao, Volume Six, Culture Wars

Out of Chaos Comes Order: Royal Society Fellows

Sir William Davidson worked closely with Robert Moray, Alexander Bruce, and other Scottish Freemasons. Moray, a Scottish supporter of the Stuarts, who would serve as Colonel in the Scots Guard, was a student of Rosicrucianism and an ardent Freemason. Moray was also well known to the cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin. Moray was probably familiar with Abendana’s work on Halevi, for he praised the writings of medieval Jews on mathematics, astronomy, and cosmology in his letters to his Masonic protégé, Alexander Bruce. Moray further recommended the works of Christian Hebraists, such as Drusius, Joseph Scaliger, and Amama, who provided scholarly reinforcement for Scottish Masonic traditions. In 1572, Johannes van den Driesche, or Drusius (1550 – 1616), a student of Hebrew, became professor of Oriental languages at Oxford. Scaliger, a friend of Guillaume Postel, was associated, along with King James’ tutor George Buchanan, with Plantin Press, said to have operated as a front for a kind of “pre-Freemasonry.” Drusius and Scaliger utilized their extensive research in Hebrew and Kabbalistic literature to argue that the Hassidim and Essenes, descendants of the Maccabeans, were a guild of religious craftsmen who played a key role in developing the mystical traditions of the Temple. Drusius stressed the fraternal relationship between Solomon and Hiram, while Scaliger compared the Hasidim to contemporary craft guilds.

According to Thomas De Quincey’s Historico-Critical Inquiry into the Origin of the Rosicrucians and the Freemasons (1886), the Rosicrucian Robert Fludd “it was, or whoever was the author of the ‘Summum Bonum,’ 1629, that must be considered as the immediate father of Freemasonry, as Andreä was its remote father.” According to a statement made by John Wallis (1616 – 1703), some meetings organized in London in 1645, during the civil wars for enquiry into natural philosophy were the origin of the Royal Society. Amongst those who took part in these meetings were Theodore Haak, who was Comenius’ agent in England, a German from the Palatinate, and John Wilkins (1614 – 1672) who was later prominent in the Royal Society as Henry Oldenburg’s co-secretary. Wilkins, chaplain to Frederick V of the Palatinate, was closely linked to Rosicrucianism in the Palatinate and tutored Frederick and Elizabeth’s son when he was sent to England.

An admirer of Fludd, Wilkins’ work is placed clearly in the Rosicrucian tradition. Wilkins quotes from the Rosicrucian Fama, and his Mathematicall Magick (1648) is largely based on the section on mechanics in Fludd’s Utriusque Cosmi Historia, published at Oppenheim in the Palatinate in 1619. In the preface to Mathematical and Philosophical Works, Wilkins praised the scientific works of Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Agrippa, Dee, and Kircher, and denounced that “vulgar opinion attributes all such strange operations unto the power of Magick.” Wilkins frequently mentions the “Lord Verulam” (Francis Bacon) in the book, or “Francis Rosicrosse.” In 1648, meetings in Wilkins’ rooms at Wadham College at Oxford began which are stated by Thomas Sprat in his official to have been the origin of the Royal Society. Among the members of this Oxford group were the alchemist Robert Boyle, William Petty, and Christopher Wren, England’s most famous architect, the designer of St Paul’s Cathedral. William Petty (1623 – 1687) became the personal secretary to Thomas Hobbes, allowing him contact with Descartes, Gassendi and Mersenne. He befriended Samuel Hartlib and Boyle.

According to Laursen and Popkin, “The publication of Henry Oldenburg’s and Robert Boyle’s correspondence has made it clear that millenarianism was at the center of the concerns of the Royal Society in its founding years.” In 1647, Boyle had written to Samuel Hartlib mentioning his “Invisible College” and that he wished to support “so glorious a design.” In 1663, the Invisible College became the Royal Society and the charter of incorporation granted by Charles II named Boyle a member of the council. The first secretary of the Royal Society was Henry Oldenburg, who forged a strong relationship with John Milton and his lifelong patron, Robert Boyle. Dury was connected to Boyle by his marriage to Dorothy Moore, an Irish Puritan widow. Their daughter, Dora Katherina Dury, later became the second wife of Henry Oldenburg. When Menaseh ben Israel arrived in London in 1650, Cromwell appointed a committee of important millenarian clergymen and government officials to receive him. Lady Ranelegh, Robert Boyle’s sister, had dinner parties for Menasseh, and Oldenburg met with him as well.[87] Menasseh also met with the Cambridge Platonists Ralph Cudworth (1617 – 1688) and Henry More (1614 – 1687). The Cambridge Platonists were a group of theologians and philosophers at the University of Cambridge in the middle of the seventeenth century. Frances Yates regarded the Cambridge Platonists as scholars who engaged with the Christian Kabbalah but rejected Hermeticism following Isaac Casaubon’s redating of the Hermetic corpus.

Among the first Freemasons on record were Sir Robert Moray and Elias Ashmole (1617 – 1692) who became original members of the Royal Society. Ashmole supported the royalist side during the English Civil War, and at the restoration of Charles II he was rewarded with several lucrative offices. His diary entry for October 16, 1646, reads in part: “I was made a Free Mason at Warrington in Lancashire, with Coll: Henry Mainwaring of Karincham [Kermincham] in Cheshire.” In 1652, Ashmole befriended Solomon Franco, a Jewish convert to Anglicanism who combined his interest in Kabbalah and the architecture of the Temple with support for the English monarchy. While Franco instructed him in Hebrew and was probably the source for his manuscript “Of the Cabalistic Doctrine,” Ashmole carried out intelligence work for the Stuart cause. Also Stuart supporter, Franco believed in the Hebrew traditions of anointed kingship, and he looked for spiritual portents in the life of Charles II, with whose eventual restoration he was greatly pleased. After the Restoration, Franco converted to Christianity, persuaded by his belief that God had a divine plan for Charles II. He gave a copy of his book to Ashmole.

Ashmole was described by De Quincey as “one of the earliest Freemasons, [and] appears from his writings to have been a zealous Rosicrucian.” Ashmole copied in his own hand an English translation of the Fama and the Confessio, and added a letter in Latin addressed to the “most illuminated Brothers of the Rose Cross,” petitioning them to be allowed him to join their fraternity. Ashmole had a strong Baconian leaning towards the study of nature.[94] He was an antiquary with a particular interest in the history of the Order of the Garter. Ashmole revered John Dee, whose writings he collected and whose alchemical and magical teachings he endeavoured to put into practice. In 1650, he published Fasciculus Chemicus under the anagrammatic pseudonym James Hasolle. This work was an English translation of two Latin alchemical works, one by Arthur Dee, the son of John Dee.

Ashmole’s works were avidly studied by other natural philosophers, such as Isaac Newton. Newton, a president of the Royal Society, was committed to interpretations of the “Restoration” of the Jews to their own land of Palestine and spent the remaining years of his intellectual life exploring the Book of Daniel. In his library, Newton kept a heavily annotated copy of The Fame and Confession of the Fraternity R.C., Thomas Vaughan’s English translation of The Rosicrucian Manifestos. Newton’s writings suggest that one of the main goals of his alchemy may have been the discovery of the philosopher’s stone, and perhaps to a lesser extent, the discovery of the highly coveted Elixir of Life. Newton also possessed copies of Themis Aurea and Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium by the alchemist Michael Maier. As a Bible scholar, Newton was initially interested in the sacred geometry of Solomon’s Temple, dedicating an entire chapter of The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended. Found within book are several passages that directly mention the land of Atlantis. Newton believed that before its corruption, a scientific priesthood secretly maintained the original primordial religion. In particular, the priests knew that the sun and not the earth was the center of their universe, and therefore the ancient temples from Stonehenge to the Temple in Jerusalem were organized around perpetual fires that represented the sun.

Source: https://ordoabchao.ca/volume-two/royal-society

Out of Chaos Comes Order: Discordianism

There is some question as to whether Discordianism should be regarded merely as a parody of religion. According to Robert Anton Wilson: “Much of the Pagan movement started out as jokes, and gradually, as people found out they were getting something out of it, they became serious. Discordianism has a built-in check against getting too serious.” Wilson explained, “Many people consider Discordianism a complicated joke disguised as a new religion. I prefer to consider it a new religion disguised as a complicated joke.” As Wilson clarifies, however, “It will be understood by the Cabalistic reader that Discordianism is a system of transcendental Atheism, agnostic Gnosticism, skeptical Monotheism, and unified Dualism. In short, the Erisian revelation is not a complicated put-on disguised as a new religion, but a new religion disguised as a complicated put-on.”

Discodianism is linked with Satanism in its rejection of the existence of a higher God, and a kind of Nietzschean “positive nihilism.” But instead of becoming intoxicated with the “Triumph of the Will,” Discordians look at the absence of meaning in the world and instead laugh, and mock anyone who takes any of it seriously. They follow the foolish chastised in the Bible for saying, “Eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die.” Through their pranksterism they become missionaries to their nihilism, poking fun at everything and everyone in an attempt to jostle them out of their supposed stodginess and unwillingness to accept the frightening truth that there is no truth, and that all is permitted. As such, the model of the Discordians is the Wise Fool, possessed with Divine Madness, who, like Nietzsche, peered into the abyss and cracked.

Discordians believe everybody should live like a Jewish eccentric named Joshua Abraham Norton (1818 – 1880), known as Emperor Norton, a citizen of San Francisco, who proclaimed himself “Norton I, Emperor of the United States” in 1859. He later assumed the secondary title of “Protector of Mexico.” Though Norton had no formal political power, he was treated deferentially in San Francisco, and currency issued in his name was honored in the establishments that he frequented. Norton roamed the city in a European-style military uniform with a plumed top hat and a sword at his side. Norton was recognized as an Illuminated Being by the Freemasons, who granted him a 33º. When Norton died, ten thousand San Franciscans attended his funeral, and he was buried in the Masonic cemetery, courtesy of the Freemasons. Mark Twain resided in San Francisco during part of Emperor Norton’s public life, and he modeled the character of the King in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn on him.

Discordians use irreverent humor to promote their philosophy and to prevent their beliefs from becoming “dogmatic.” Their favored prank has been spreading false legends about the Illuminati, who are mentioned as the inheritors of the Assassins in the Principia Discordia. Discordianism represented a confluence of all the prankster traditions of occult secret societies, dating back to the Sons of Malta, the Shriners, through to the avant-garde and Situationism, adapted to the psychedelic counterculture. As described to Scott Oliver, in “Inside the Resurgence of Discordianism–the Chaotic, LSD-Fuelled Anti-Religion” for Vice magazine:

It’s perhaps hardly surprising that there’s cross-pollination between Discordianism and Situationism, the French artist-philosophers of the happening, while other influences and precursors include: the Dada movement; Beat novelist William S Burroughs, who first mooted “the 23 Enigma” after which F23 is named; psychologist and LSD guru Timothy Leary, dubbed “the most dangerous man in America” by Richard Nixon; and Zen Buddhist thinker Alan Watts…

The modern popularization of the terms “pagan” and “neopagan,” as they are currently understood, is largely traced to Oberon Zell-Ravenheart, co-founder of the Church of All Worlds (CAW), who was inspired to use the term from Thornley. As Adler indicates, some, like Robert Anton Wilson, have alleged that the entire pagan movement is a plot centered around Thornley’s worship of Discordia. In California in 1966, Thornley, who was interested in “sex, drugs and treason,” joined Kerista, an early free love cult founded in Haight-Ashbury, which Thornley described as being “more akin to the religions of the East and, also, the so-called pagan religions of the pre-Christian West.” Margo Adler credits Kerista as “the true beginnings of the neopagan movement in contemporary culture.” Kerista was centered on the ideals of polyfidelity and the creation of intentional communities (communes). According to Carole Cusak, Kerista’s sexual practices were influenced, as was that of the Church of All Worlds, by OTO member Robert Heinlein’s science-fiction novel Stranger in a Strange Land. In the science-fiction novel, a Martian-raised human named Michael Valentine Smith founded The Church of All Worlds, preached sexual freedom and the truth of all religions, and is martyred by narrow-minded people who are not ready for his teachings. Cusack speculates that the person who invited Heinlein to speak at Kerista’s Los Angeles chapter may have been Thornley. Thornley was known to be a lifelong science-fiction fan. But, Heinlein turned down the invitation.

Source: https://ordoabchao.ca/volume-four/ordo-ab-discordia

Out of Chaos Comes Order: National Bolshevism

Ernst Jünger (1895 – 1998)—a close friend of Heidegger and Carl Schmitt, and a contributor to Alfred R. Orage’s The New Age—was an exponent of National Bolshevism. At the time, Jünger was the most famous soldier in Germany, the most highly decorated veteran of World War I. Jünger enjoyed a long-term friendship with Friedrich Hielscher (1902 – 1990), who is said to have “mentored” the Executive Secretary of the Ahnenerbe, Wolfram Sievers. Following Ernst von Salomon, who named Hielscher “Bogumil,” Jünger nicknamed Hielscher “Bodo” or “Bogo” in reference to Hielscher’s interest in Gnosticism. Hielscher was the founder of an esoteric or Neopagan movement, the Independent Free Church (UFK), which combined panentheism with paganism and nationalism. In Hielscher’s theology, God is external to the universe, or the universe is contained within God, and within the universe are the “Twelve Divine Messengers,” six male and six female, identified with the gods of Germanic paganism.

As described by Alexander Reid Ross in Against the Fascist Creep, as White Russian émigrés moved to Germany and forged an ultranationalist sense of anticommunist unity between their countries, some sought to unite with the Nazis to “liberate” their former homeland. Some adopted a semblance of socialism in the belief that state communism would eventually evolve toward nationalism. For example, Nikolai Ustryalov (1890 – 1937) recognized the positive national contributions of the Bolsheviks and hoped that they would abandon internationalism in favor of a strong nationalist political economy—a kind of “national-bolshevism.”

The movement had its origins when Moeller van den Bruck counterposed the tactic of opening the East to Spengler’s well-known “theory of pessimism, arguing that Germany and Russia were both vigorous “young” peoples, and that the outcome of World War I “had separated them with finality from the decaying West.” When Spengler and Moeller debated their respective positions at the June Club in 1920, Otto Strasser (1897 – 1974) was in the audience. With his brother Gregor, Otto later created the left or Strasserist wing of the Nazi Party. In his autobiography, History in My Time, Strasser described how he would never forget that fruitful discussion,” when “the Pessimist and the Optimist of the West expounded their versions of the coming decades.” Although “the two conceptions were opposed to each other,” Spengler and Moeller were “yet attuned to each other and complimentary to each other, so that all of us, moved by this moment, solemnly swore to devote our lives to the realization of their visions.”

The vision became known as National Bolshevism. National Bolshevism arose during the 1920s, when a number of German intellectuals began a dialogue which created a synthesis between radical nationalism (typically referencing Prussianism) and Bolshevism as it existed in the Soviet Union. The main figure in this movement was Ernst Niekisch (1889 – 1967) of the Old Social Democratic Party of Germany. Niekisch and his followers adopted the name of “National Bolsheviks” and looked to the Soviet Union as a continuation of both Russian nationalism and the old state of Prussia. Jünger and Niekisch were members of the Association for the Study of Russian Planned Economy (ARPLAN), along with Georg Lukacs, the Marxist philosopher who was among the primary influences on the Frankfurt School. All of them envisioned a Eurasian cooperation spanning from Russia to Portugal.

Although members of the Nazi party under Hitler did not take part in Niekisch’s National Bolshevik project, characterizing Bolshevism as a “Jewish conspiracy,” in the early 1930s there was a parallel tendency within the party which advocated similar views. Also known as Strasserism, for its leader, Gregor Strasser, the Nazi left-wing was the strand of Nazism that called for a worker-based and anti-capitalist form of Nazism. They included Aufbau member Karl Haushofer, who eventually came under suspicion because of his contacts with left-wing socialist figures within the Nazi movement, and his advocacy of essentially a German–Russian alliance. The Strasser brothers’ movement advocated neither capitalism nor Marxism, but instead a society organized “without masters,” in a natural hierarchy based on merit and an organic integration of syndicates and corporations bringing the nations of Europe into a new United States of Europe. However, their movement was crushed during the Night of the Long Knives.

Jünger’s 1932 work Der Arbeiter (“The Worker”) is considered a seminal National Bolshevik text. Along with Karl Haushofer, Jünger, Niekisch and other figures of the Conservative Revolution, the Strassers advocated National Bolshevism, a German-Russian revolutionary alliance which influenced the German Communists with connections to the Nazi left-wing. Jünger was the most prominent of the German Conservative Revolutionaries and considered one of the greatest German writers of the twentieth century, and although he was sympathetic of National Socialism he never joined the Nazi party. He was a highly-decorated German soldier in World War I, after which he became active in German politics, experimented in psychedelic drugs, and travelled the world.

Jünger’s accounts of the war, The Storms of Steel and The Adventurous Heart, celebrated the heroism of the battlefield, the real arena of the “world spirit.” Jünger identified the decline of civilization and the portent of an oblivion, joined with the feminization of Weimar, that had to be overcome. This Zivilisationskritik (critique of civilization) became his trademark, along with a rejection of the Enlightenment in favor of a more natural “deeper Enlightenment.” Jünger envisioned a “total mobilization” that would capture the imagination of the workers of the nation in a united industrial effort to bring catastrophe to the modern world and overthrow liberal democracy.

Jünger never joined the Nazi Party, and eventually turned against them by the late 1930s. His objections to the Nazis, which were influential on the members of the Stauffenberg plot to assassinate Hitler in July 1944, led to his dismissal from the Wehrmacht. He eventually settled in Wilfingen in the house of the Master Forester attached to the ancestral home of his executed friend Graf Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, who was one of the leading members of the failed plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from power. There he founded the literary review Antaios with Mircea Eliade.

In 1946, Jünger met Armin Mohler (1920 – 2003), who is often considered a central intellectual figure of the post war extreme Right in Germany, and who would become his secretary. Mohler was also press secretary for Heidegger. Mohler also maintained extensive correspondence with Carl Schmitt. An important scholar on the German Conservative Revolution, Mohler was responsible for popularizing that term, in Die Konservative Revolution in Deutschland 1918-1932: Ein Handbuch, this PhD dissertation published in 1949 under the supervision of Karl Jaspers.

Otto Strasser fled first to Austria, then to Prague, Switzerland and France, and in 1941 he emigrated to Canada, where he was the famed “Prisoner of Ottawa.” During this time, Goebbels denounced Strasser as the Nazis’ “Public Enemy Number One” and put a price of $500,000 on his head. As an influential and uncondemned former Nazi Party member still faithful to many doctrines of National Socialism, he was initially prevented from returning to West Germany after the war, first by the Allied powers and then by the West German government. During his exile, he wrote articles on Nazi Germany and its leadership for a number of British, American and Canadian newspapers, including the New Statesman, and a series for the Montreal Gazette, which was ghostwritten by then Gazette reporter and later politician Donald C. MacDonald. A long time Canadian politician and political party leader and had been referred to as the “Best premier Ontario never had.”

Source: https://ordoabchao.ca/volume-three/conservative-revolution