A Critique of Industrial Society

The Third Position Journal


In this essay we will argue that employment is a key aspect of belonging – however, this is only true in close-knit communities. ‘Belonging’ is impossible in densely populated areas regardless of whether the individual is employed or not, as social cohesion is not possible in areas where everyone is a stranger. Employment in a close-knit community shows that an individual belongs, the individual is working to contribute to the community, their contribution is visible to others. Once a population reaches a certain and nobody knows each other anymore, a sense of duty to others slips away and narcissistic, antisocial behaviour sets in.


For the Marxist, the village (city) symbolises progress whereas the country symbolises a previous stage in development. Marx states as much throughout his writings. For example, in The German Ideology he writes “The contradiction town and country begins with the transition from barbarism to civilisation…

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